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    1. Reid Joyce from Hourglass Quartet
    2. Schola Pacifica 1995 (Gregorian chants)
    3. The Calgary Boys Choir
    4. The Boy's Choir of St. Jacob
    5. Renaissance Consort Music by Yasuhiko Higaki
    6. Brazos String Quartet
    7. Albert Piamenta and the Israeli Saxophone quartet - - >
    8. 'Bustan Avraham' ensemble - - >
    9. The "Rinat" choir - Israel
    10. The "Renanim Recorder Ensemble" &Ephraim Marcus - Israel
    11. Leonid Ptashka and Arale Kaminsky's trio - - >
    12. The 'Tel-Aviv music center' and it's band 'Tzliley Aviv'
    13. Israel Zohar and it's klezmer band
    14. The Jerusalem trio
    15. The 'Vocal' octet
    16. The Israeli Andalusian orchestra - - >
    17. The Israeli String Quartet
    18. The Minuet ensemble - - >
    19. The Madrigal Quartet - - >
    20. FRAME record company (David Bellugi)
    21. The Israeli composers and writers society
    22. The Israeli music institute
    23. Hani Swaid for arab music images and recordings
    24. The Israeli Philharmonic Choir and Mr. Alex Chruntman
    25. The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra
    26. Mary Radspinner
    27. Tel-Aviv International Opera Workshop


    :

    1. Jan Koster - Bach pictures
    2. Jenn Langer - Vlatava photos
    3. New-York City Images NYCVB 1997
    4. African Music and Dance Ensemble - African music images
    5. Mary Radspinner - Celtic Pictures and Music
    6. Vikrum Singh - Indian Pictures and Music
    7. X Dot 25 Music Productions - World Pictures and Music
    8. Yasuhiko Higaki - Renaissance Consort photos
    9. Folkers & Powell, Makers of Historical Flutes - Historical Instruments images
    10. David Bell - Blues images
    11. The Boy's Choir of St. Jacob - Images and Sounds
    12. Dwight Thomas - Principal Timpani - Omaha Symphony
    13. Lark In The Morning - World Music Instruments images
    14. Yamaha Corporation - Musical Instruments images
    15. Corel Corporation - Musical Images(c)
    16. Web Clip Empire 250.000 by Xoom - Cities images
    17. Israeli New Opera - Opera photos
    18. NASA - Space and moon images
    19. San Diego Opera - Opera photos
    20. Dr. Jacob Dafni for world photos
    21. Guillaume Pierre - Caves paintings
    22. Petr Doua - Electronic scene photos
    23. Alex Zhang - Bruckner's sites photos
    24. Johan De Boer - J.S. Bach locations and relatives
    25. RBX Israel - Musical instruments pictures
    26. Daniela Rabinovitch - Avidom's picture with Albert Einstein
    27. Photo R. Weissenstein, Tel-Aviv - Toscanini with the The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (1936)
    28. Lauri Toivio, Finland - original drawings of composers
    29. Michael Nielsen - St.Basils Cathedral in Moscow
    30. Stephane Egnell - Finland and Russia images
    31. Aharon Makmal's musical instruments' collection
    32. Jaroslav Mencl from Czech republic - Prokofiev photos


    All videos taken and edited by Nadav Dafni except:

    1. 2 Music Hall VR scenes - by Doug Baker (VRCincinnati) - 2 VR QuickTime movies
    2. The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra - IPO archive - 6 historical movies
    3. :


    :

    In composers screens
    Claudio Monteverdi by by Bernardo Strozzi, Oskar Strakosch Collection, Vienna
    Henry Purcell (1695) by John Closterman, National Portrait Gallery, London
    Ambrosius Bach (father of J.S. bach - c. 1690) in the Music Department of State Library, Berlin
    J.S Bach (1748) by Elias Gottlob Haussman, William H. Scheide collection, Princeton, New Jersey
    J. S. Bach (young), in the Town Museum, Erfurt
    J. S. Bach (young), by Johann Jacob Ihle, Bach-House Museum, Eisenach (icon)
    J.C. Bach (youngest son of J.S. known as the 'English' Bach) by Thomas Gainsborough, Liceo Musicale di Bologna
    Handel (1749) by Thomas Hudson, University and State Library, Hamburg
    Handel composing by Philipp Mercier (1689[?]-1760), Possesion of P. Clemen, Bonn
    Mozart (detail) by Krafft in Gesellschaft der Musik-freunde, Vienna
    Mozart (Unfinished painting, 1789) by Joseph Lange, Mozarteum, Salzburg
    Mozart family (1780) by Johann Nepomuk della Croce, Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, Salzburg
    Mozart the kid (1763) by Lorenzoni, Mozarteum, Salzburg
    Mozart the youth at the harpsichord (1770) by Thadaus Helbling, Mozarteum, Salzburg
    Constanze Mozart (1802) by Hans Hansen, Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, Salzburg
    Frdric Chopin (1838) by Delacroix, Muse du Louvre, Paris
    Richard Wagner (1882) by Franz Seraph von Lenbach, Wagner Museum, Bayreuth
    Verdi by Gravure de Boldini, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome
    Beethoven (1804) by Willibrord Joseph Mahler, Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna
    Beethoven's birth house in 1889, Beethovenhaus, Bonn
    Beethoven (1820) by Joseph Carl Stieler, Beethovenhaus, Bonn or: Collection Walter Hinrichsen, New York
    Beethoven (1823) by Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller (1793-1865), Beethovenhaus, Bonn
    Dvorak by unknown painter, Atelier Josef Machacek
    Dvorak by unknown painter, Dvorak birth house, Nelahozeves, Czech Republic
    Corelli (1770) by Jan Frans Van Douven, Stiftung Preubische Schlosser und Garten Berlin, Brandenburg
    Domenico Scarlatti (1738) by Domingo Antonio Velasco, Casa Museu dos Patudos, Alpiarca, Portugal
    Jean-Baptiste Lully in the Imperial Collection, Vienna
    Franz Liszt by Henri Lehmann, Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum, Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music, Budapest
    Franz Liszt (1856) Oil portrait by Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Liszt Ferenc Memorial Museum, Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music, Budapest
    Schnberg by Richard Gerstl, Historisches Museum der Stadt, Wien, Vienna
    Schubert (1875 - based on a water colour from 1825) by Wilhelm August Rieder, Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna
    Schubert in a Viennese Burgerhaus by Julius Schmid, Museo della Corale Maschile, Vienna
    Liszt spielt (1840) (details) by Josef Danhauser, Nationalgalerie Berlin
    Hector Berlioz (1867) by Gustave Courbet, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
    Berlioz in Rome (c 1832) by Emile Signol, Villa Medici, Rome
    Brahms (young - c. 1860) by Carl Jagemann
    Brahms by Ludwig Michalek, Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin
    Rossini (1820) by V. Camuccini, Museo Teatrale alla Scala
    Rossini in a painting with Liszt at the Piano (1840) by Joseph Danhauser, Nationalgalerie, Berlin
    Rossini by unknown painter, Museo Rossini, Bologna
    Guillaume de Machaut (1584) miniature by unknown painter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris
    Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois by unknown painter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris
    Bincois (1432) by Jan Eyck, National Gallery, London
    Josquin des Prez (1870) by Gustav Adolf Gaupp, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (based on a woodcut (1611) by Petrus Opmeer, from 'Opus Chronographicum')
    Alessandro Scarlatti by Lorenzo Vaccaro, Biblioteca del Conservatorio di Musica St. Pietro a Majella, Naples
    Vivaldi (1723) by Francois Morellon La Cave, Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Bologna
    Rameau by Jacques Aved, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Dijon
    Rameau by Jean Jacques Caffieri (icon)
    Salieri by an unknown artist, Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
    Carl Maria von Weber (1820) by Caroline Bardua, Nationalgalerie Berlin
    Frescobaldi by unknown painter, Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Rome
    Mendelssohn, (1845) by Eduard Magnus, Stadtgeschichtliches Museum, Leipzig
    Palestrina by unknown painter
    Schtz by Christoph Spetner, Karl Marx University, Leipzig
    Hassler (1593), Engraving by Domenico Custos, Staats und Stadtbibliothek, Augsburg
    Schumann (1859) by Dessin d'E Bendemann
    Schumann (1839) by Joseph Kriehuber, Schumann Museum, Zwickau
    Telemann (1750) by V. D. Preisler, Nuremberg
    Gluck (a portrait - 1775) by Joseph-Sigfrede Duplessis, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna
    Gluck with his wife (c. 1772) in the Historical Museum, Vienna (icon)
    Haydn (1792) by Thomas hardy, collection of the Royal College of Music, London
    Haydn by unknown painter, Victoria & Albert Museum, London
    Tchaikovsky (1893) by Nicolai Kusnezoff, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
    Bruckner (1893) by A. Miksch, Picture gallery, St. Florian Abbey
    Puccini by Antonio Bardi, villa of Puccini, Torre del Lago Puccini
    Giacomo Puccini by Luigi De Servi, Palazzo Mansi, Lucca
    Orlando di Lasso by unknown painter
    Luther by Lucas Cranach the elder, Glaeria Uffizi, Florence
    Glinka (1887) by Ilia Repin (1844-1930) - manipulated, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
    Mussorgsky 10 before his death (1881) by Repin (1844-1930), Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
    Hugo Wolf by unknown painter, Historisches Museum der Stadt, Wien
    Sibelius (1894) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Sibelius Museum, Ainola
    Gounod (1867) by Edouard Dubufe, Private collection of Franois Davin
    Faure (1889) by John Singer Sargent (1856-1925) Muse de la musique, Paris
    Hildegard von Bingen (detail - c. 1240) from Lucca Codex
    Paganini by Pierre de Pommayrac, Doria-Tursi Pallace, Genova
    Smetana by unknown painter, Smetana Museum, Prague
    Elgar (1913) by Philip Burne Jones, Worchester City Council
    J. Strauss Jr. (1888) by August Eisenmenger, Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna
    Satie (1892-93) by Suzanne Valadon, Archives Erik Satie, Paris
    Bizet by L. Mitterfellner, Ackermanns Sammlerband No. 2
    Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1898) by Valentin Serov (1865-1911), Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
    Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1893) by Ilya Repin (1844-1930), The Russian Museum, St. Peterburg
    Grieg (1884) by Franz von Lenbach, Troldhaugen Museum
    Borodin by Ilia Repin (1844-1930)
    Shostakovich by Lauri Toivio, Copyright 2000 Uusinta Publishing Company Ltd.
    Dvorak by Lauri Toivio, Copyright 2000 Uusinta Publishing Company Ltd.
    Stravinsky by Lauri Toivio, Copyright 2000 Uusinta Publishing Company Ltd.
    Tchaikovsky by Lauri Toivio, Copyright 2000 Uusinta Publishing Company Ltd.
    Hindemith by Lauri Toivio, Copyright 2000 Uusinta Publishing Company Ltd.
    Alexander Glazunov (1887) by Ilya Repin (1844-1930), The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
    Cherubini by Jean Auguste Ingres, Muse du Louvre, Paris
    Rachmaninoff by Angel Peterchev, Copyright 2001
    Frescobaldi picture courtesy of Roberto Acquaroli
    Clara Schumann by Franz Lenbach, Robert-Schumann-Haus, Zwickau



    In Political Developments
    King Henry VIII of England, The British Museum, London


    In Funny Composers
    Berlioz with his "poor" orchestra players - a caricature from 1846, Bibliotheque de l'Opera, Paris
    Vivaldi - caricature (1723) by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome
    Liszt a caricature by unknown painter


    In musical instruments screens
    St cecilia and the angel, Orazio Gentileschi (1563-1639)
    Musician Angels [part] (1485) Hans Memling, Koninkijk Museum, Antwerp
    The Ghent Altarpiece: Angels Playing Music (1426-27) Jan van Eyck, Cathedral of St Bavo, Ghent
    The Duet (1749) Anthony Davis, Victoria and Albert museum, London
    Mezzetin (c.1718-20) Jean-Antoine Watteau, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    The scale of Love (1718) Jean-Antoine Watteau, National Gallery, London
    Allegory of Music (1649) Laurent de La Hire, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Concert (1485-95) Lorenzo Costa, National Gallery, London
    A fresco of musician "Legend of St. Martin" (detail - c. 1330) by Simone Martini, Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze
    Afro-American slaves (the begining of 19th century) by unknown painter, The Abbey Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection, Williamsburg, Virginia
    Part from Musician Angels (two portions of a triptych) (1485) hans Memling, Koninkijk Museum at Antwerp
    King David is playing the Harp (12th century) from an old English book
    The Ghent Altarpiece: Angels Playing Music (1426-27) Jan van Eyck, Cathedral of St Bavo, Ghent
    Musicians in Angvin - Violin player amongst different players (1375)
    Appollo and the muse - detail (1511) Raphael
    Child plays the bass viol (1649) Laurent de La Hire, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    The Music Party (1626) Harmenszoon van RIJN Rembrandt, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
    Upaupa Schneklud (The Player Schneklud) (1894) Paul Gauguin, The Baltimore Museum of Art, The Cone Collection
    St Cecilia (1617-18) by Domenichino, Muse du Louvre, Paris
    Still-life with Musical Instruments - Detail (c. 1650) Evaristo Baschenis, Carrara Academy Gallery, Bergamo
    Musicians in Angvin - ancient trumpet player amongst different players (1375)
    Procession of the religious orders of Antwerp - detail (1616) Denis van Alsloot, Museo del Prado, Madrid
    The Discovery of Fire (c. 1934-35) Rene Magritte, Collection of Leslee and David Rogath
    The Fifer (1866) Edouard Manet, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
    Concert of Women (1530-40) master of Female Half-length, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Flute concert at Sans Souci (1852) by Adolf Menzel, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
    Les Musiciens a l'orchestre (1872) Edgar Degas, Muse du Louvre, Paris
    The Player on the Flute (c. 1721) by Janos Kupetzky, Museum der bildenden Kunste, Budapest
    The Nightwatch (1642) Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
    De Musica - Drummer amongst different players (1375) Boethius, Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples
    Musicians (c. 3rd century) Dioscourides of Samos, Mosaic from Villa of Cicero at Pompeii, National Museum - Naples
    St. Cecilia with Saints (1514-1516) Raphael, Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna, Italy
    Yvonne and Christine Lerolle Playing the Piano (1897) Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Muse de l'Orangerie, Paris, France
    Lady at the Virginals (1662-65) Jan Vermeer van Delft, National Gallery, London
    The Ghent Altarpiece: Angels Playing Music (1426-27) Jan van Eyck, Cathedral of St Bavo, Ghent
    Stradivari in his workshop (1886) by Allessandro Rinaldi, Museo Civico Ala Ponzone, Cremona
    Conductor and composer Anton Rubinstein (1887) by Ilya Repin (1844-1930), The Russian Museum, St. Peterburg
    Chart for Conductors (1906) by Schliessmann, from 'Lustige Blatter'

    10 drawings copied with permission from the book:
    Bonanni's Antique Musical Instruments and Their Players, Frank L. Harrison & Joan Rimmer (editors), Dover Publications, Inc., New-York:
        Castanets
        Dulcimer
        French Horn
        Gong
        Oboe
        Pan Flute
        Serpent
        Shawm
        Spinet
        Tambourine



    In Early Musical Instruments
    La musicienne by Van der Helst, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


    In periods screens
    Musicians (13th century) from Cantigas de Santa Maria, El Escorial, Real Biblioteca de San Lorenzo
    Wanderer above the sea of fog (c. 1818) Caspar David Friedrich, Kunsthalle, Hamburg
    Leopold Mozart with his 2 kids - Wolfgang and Anna (1764) Louis de Carmontelle, National Library in Paris
    De Musica - Drummer amongst different players (1375) Boethius, Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples
    Aulos and clappers (c. fifth century B.C.) from Epictete's painting on a goblet, The British Museum, London
    The lute by Carpaccio, The Academy, Venice
    Guido d'Arezzo's musical hand, Bodleian Library, Oxford


    In lessons screens
    The Lute Player (c. 1596) by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    A 12th century musician, National Portrait Gallery, London
    A Man and a Woman Seated at a Virginal by Gabriel Metsu, National Gallery, London


    In musical forms screens
    Procession of the religious orders of Antwerp - detail (1616) Denis van Alsloot, Museo del Prado, Madrid
    The dance to the music of time (1640) Nicolas Poussin, Wallace Collection, London
    The angels Concert (1470) by Piero della Francesca, National Gallery, London
    A fresco of musician (detail) by Simone Martini, Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze (or: St. Francesco, Asizi)
    Wanderer above the sea of fog (c. 1818) Caspar David Friedrich, Kunsthalle, Hamburg
    Cantoria - Group of singing boys (1431-1439) Lucca della Robbia, Museo dell'Opera del Duom, Florence
    'The Coronation of the Virgin' (processed details) by unknown painter, Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich
    'Der Kanzler' (14th century) from the manesse MS, UniversitatsBibliothek, Heidelberg
    Berlioz with his "poor" orchestra players - a caricature from 1846, Bibliotheque de l'Opera, Paris
    Singer with a Glove, Edgar Degas, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
    King David playing music with his musicians (13 century) from the player book of St. Elizabeth, National Library, Vienna
    A Lady Standing at the Virginal (1673) by Jan Vermeer van Delft, National Gallery, London
    A Lady Seated at the Virginal (1675) by Jan Vermeer van Delft, National Gallery, London
    'The Concert' (c. 1530) in Schloss Rohrau, Graf Harrach'sche Familiensammlung, Vienna - probably A clone of Concert of Women (1530-40) master of Female Half-length, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg
    Musical Fte (1747) by Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Muse du Louvre, Paris
    Im kreise seiner familie - detail (1840) by Michael Leitermayer, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna


    In Music and Dance screen
    A Peasant Dance by Peter Paul Rubens, Museo del Prado, Madrid
    The Peasant Dance (1568) Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna


    In history of art screens
    A man plays an instrument with a bow (mid Magdalenian culture) Cave painting, Grotto of Trois Freres, Ariege
    3 women musicians plays ancient lute, flute and harp, a tomb painting, Egypt (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
    Egyptians play the harp, lute, double oboe and lyre (c. 1420-1411 B.C.) tomb painting in Veset
    Greek sculpture showing a girl plays the Aulos (460-470 BC) in Museo Nazionale, Rome
    A tibia player (470-80 BC) detail from wall painting in the tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia
    Musicians playing Lyre & Aulos (6 century BC) Cave painting
    Orpheus plays for the animals (c. 3rd century) Mosaic
    Roman street musicians with small cymbals and large tympanon (frame drum) (1st century B.C.) Dioscorides of Samos, Mosaic from Villa of Cicero at Pompeii (National Museum, Athens)
    The angels Concert (1470) by Piero della Francesca, National Gallery, London
    Musician Angels (two portions of a triptych) (1485) Hans Memling, Koninkijk Museum at Antwerp
    Cantoria (1431-1439) Lucca della Robbia, Museo dell'Opera del Duom, Firenze
    Saint Cecilia (1569) Michiel van Coxcie, Museo del Prado, Madrid
    Appollo and the muse - detail (1511) Raphael, Vatican, Rome
    St. Cecilia with Saints (1514-1516) Raphael, Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna, Italy
    The musicians (1600) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    The Nightwatch (1642) Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
    The Hurdy-Gurdy Player (1620-30) Georges De la Tour, Muse des Beaux-Arts, Nantes
    A child plays the bass viol (1649) Laurent de La Hire, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Mezzetin (c.1718-20) Jean-Antoine Watteau, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    Leopold Mozart with his 2 kids - Wolfgang and Anna (1764) Louis de Carmontelle, British Museum
    The Opera orchestra (1869) Edgar Degas, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
    Upaupa Schneklud (The Player Schneklud) (1894) Paul Gauguin, The Baltimore Museum of Art, The Cone Collection
    Yvonne and Christine Lerolle Playing the Piano (1897) Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Muse de l'Orangerie, Paris, France.
    Jeunes filles au piano (Girls at the Piano) (1892) Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Musee d'Orsay, Paris
    The Rehearsal (1873-78) Edgar Degas, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
    Singer with a Glove, Edgar Degas, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
    Cabaret (1877) Edgar Degas, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington
    The Scream (1893) Edvard Munch,Nasjongalleriet, Oslo
    The Sleeping Gypsy (1897) Henri Rousseau, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
    La Musique (1939) Henri Matisse, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
    Jazz: Icarus (1943) Henri Matisse, The Estate of Matisse, copyright S.P.A.D.E.M, Paris
    Guitar (1913) Pablo Picasso, Tate Gallery, London
    Three Musicians (1921) Pablo Picasso, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
    The Violin (1916) Juan Gris, Kunstmuseum, Basel
    Girl At Piano (serigraph-1963) by Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997)
    Four-marilyns (1979-86) Andy Warhol, Ileana & Michael Sonnabend Collection


    In the ensembles screen
    Leopold Mozart with his 2 kids - Wolfgang and Anna (1764) Louis de Carmontelle, British Museum
    The angels Concert (1470) Piero della Francesca, National Gallery, London
    'Der Kanzler' (14th century) from the manesse MS, UniversitatsBibliothek, Heidelberg
    Haydn quartet (1907) by Franz Hanfstaengl (1804 - 1877 ), Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, Vienna


    :

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  1. Images Copyright Task Force ImageGALLERY - 35,000 images, Copyrights NVTech Inc.
  2. Arttoday.com copyright 2001 ArtToday.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved


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  2. Music in Western Civilization. Paul Henry Lang. W.W. Norton & Company. 1997.
  3. History of Opera. Stanley Sadie (Editor). W.W. Norton & Company. 1990.
  4. Maestro. Please!. Ed Fisher. Applause Books. 1992. The Oxford Companion to Musical Instruments. Anthony C. Baines. Oxford University Press. 1992.
  5. Musical Instruments Through the Ages. Anthony Baines (editor). Walker & Co. 1976.
  6. The Enjoyment of Music: . Kristine Forney. W.W. Norton & Company. 1996.
  7. Musicians' Guide to Acoustics. Murray Campbell. Clive Greated. Schirmer. 1987.
  8. The Physics and Psychophysics of Music: An Introduction. Juan G. Roederer. Springer-Verlag. 1995.
  9. The Norton/Grove Encyclopedia of Music. W.W. Norton & Company. New York. 1988. Macmillan Press Ltd.. London
  10. The New College Encyclopedia of Music. J.A. Westrup and F.Ll. Harrison. 1960 W.W. Norton & Company. Inc.. New York
  11. Harvard Dictionary of Music. Willi Apel. Harvard University Press. Cambridge MA 1960
  12. Essential Dictionary of Music Notation. Tom Gerou & Linda Lusk. Alfred Publishing Co.. Inc. Los Angeles. 1996.
  13. A Dictionary of Musical Quotations. Ian Crofton & Donald Fraser. Schirmer Books - A division of Macmillan. Inc. New York. 1989
  14. The Story of Painting: From the Renaissance to the Present. Knemann. Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Kln. 1995
  15. Ultimate visual dictionary. Jo Evans (editor). Dorling kindersley limited. London. 1994
  16. Musical Masterpieces. Jean-Jacques Soleil & Guy Lelong. W & R Chambers Ltd. Edinburg. 1991
  17. The Larousse Encyclopedia of Music. Geoffrey Hindley (Editor). Hamlyn Publishing. Middlesex. 1971




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